Surgery (from the Greek: ????? cheirourgik? (composed of ??, “hand”, and ?, “work”), via Latin: chirurgiae, meaning “hand work”) is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas (for example, a perforated ear drum).