Tractor in Agricultural Field (Stock Footage)

Tractor in Agricultural Field (Stock Footage)

Agriculture is the set of techniques used to grow plants in order to obtain food, beverages, fibers, energy, raw material for clothing, construction, medicine, tools, or just for aesthetic contemplation. agricultural calendar of a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi. Who works in agriculture called farmer. The term farmer (Brazilian Portuguese) or farmer (European Portuguese) applies to the owner of rural land which is usually practiced agriculture, livestock or both. The science that studies the characteristics of plants and soil to improve agricultural techniques is agronomy. The agro prefix comes from the Latin AGRU entry which means “cultivated or arable land.” The word “agriculture” comes from the Latin agriculture, composed of ager (field, territory) and culture (cultivation) in the strict sense of tilling the soil. In Portuguese, the word “agriculture” has maintained its strict sense and refers exclusively to the cultivation of the fields, ie, relates to the production of vegetables. However, in English, and in French, the word “agriculture” indicates more generally agricultural activities both field crop cultivation as stockbreeding. A closer translation of agriculture would therefore agricultural; it is therefore a “deceptive cognate” (often mistaken concept with false cognate [ “cognate” means “same origin {etymological}” so “agriculture” and “agriculture” are cognates simply because they have the same origin, regardless of the different meaning]).  beginning of agricultural activities separates the Neolithic period immediately preceding the age period of chipped stone. How are prior to writing history, agriculture beginnings are obscure, but admits that it has arisen independently in different parts of the world, probably in the valleys and river floodplains inhabited by ancient civilizations. [Citation needed] Of ten [5] and twelve thousand years ago, during prehistory, the period of the Neolithic or period of polished stone, some individuals hunter-gatherers noted that some grains that were collected from nature for their food could be buried that is, “sown” in order to produce new plants equal to that originated them. The first cultivation and farming systems appeared in some little numerous regions and relatively little extensive in the world. These early forms of agriculture were certainly practiced near villas and alluvium of the ebb tides, or already fertilized land not required, therefore, deforestation [5]. This practice has allowed increasing the food supply these people, plants began to be cultivated very close to each other. This is because they could produce fruits, which were easily picked when ripe, allowing higher productivity of plants grown in relation to its natural habitat. [Citation needed] Thus, the frequent and dangerous search looking for food were avoided. Over time, they were selected from wild grains those who possessed the characteristics that most interested the first farmers, such as size, productivity, flavor and others. [Citation needed] Thus was born the first growing domesticated plants, among which includes wheat and barley. During the Neolithic period, the main agricultural areas were located in the valleys of the rivers Nile (Egypt), Tigris and Euphrates (Mesopotamia, now known as Iraq) and rivers Yellow and Blue (China) 5,000 years ago, when the neolithic agriculture reached only the Atlantic, the North Sea, the Baltic, Siberia, the valley of the Ganges and the great fl oresta African equatorial, the closest that center regions in western Asia, Eastern Europe and in north Africa, were already long grown and traveled by herds [5].

The Nile River overflowed every year between July and October. The ebbing of crops were made after the retreat of the water when the soil were soaked and enriched by alluvium deposits and the harvest occurred in the spring [5].

There are crops records in at least three different regions of the world at different times:. Mesopotamia (possibly the Natufian culture), Central America (by pre-Columbian cultures) and in river basins of China and India [citation needed]

Climate change or development of human technology may have been the initial reason that led to the discovery of agriculture Agriculture allows the existence of human settlements with much higher population density than can be supported by hunting and gathering. There was a gradual transition in which the economy of hunting and gathering coexisted with the agricultural economy:. Some crops were deliberately planted and other foods were obtained from nature [citation needed]

The importance of agriculture practice in man’s history is both praised and criticized: while some believe that was the decisive step in human development, critics say it was the biggest mistake in the history of the human race [citation needed].

On the one hand, the group settled on earth had more time devoted to activities with different objectives to produce food, which resulted in new technology and the accumulation of capital goods, hence the acculturation and the apparent pattern of improvement of life. On the other, the groups continued using native foods from your region, maintained an ecological balance with the environment, unlike the new agricultural society formed, clearing native vegetation to deploy the monoculture, the highest amount of demand with smaller variety, later began to use pesticides and other chemicals, causing a major impact on soil, water, fauna and flora of the region. [citation needed]

Besides food for use by humans and their pets, agriculture produces goods as diverse as flowers and ornamental plants, organic fertilizers, industrial chemicals (latex and ethanol), fibers (cotton, flax and hemp), fuels ( wood fuel, ethanol, methanol, biodiesel). [citation needed]

Electricity can be generated methane gas from vegetable waste processed digester or wood burning specially produced for the production of biomass (by growing trees grow rapidly, for example, some species of eucalyptus). [Lacks sources]

From a technical and scientific point of view, the development of agriculture is divided into three main stages: ancient, modern and contemporary Agriculture nowadays can be seen from various points of view. [Citation needed]

The conservative viewpoint, agriculture follows the Cartesian concepts, simplistic and reductionist. These concepts are necessary to understand the operation of each stage of the agricultural cyclical mechanism, ranging from the preparation of the land to the marketing of the products themselves and those returning in the form of monetary investment in the expansion and maintenance of the means of production. [ citation needed]

Already by the systemic perspective, agriculture is seen as a process that suffers and exerts pressure on its members. There is concern with the flow of energy, where it comes from and where it goes. aspects are considered often difficult to measure, such as:. the value of soil fertility, production time, cultural aspects involving actors inserted into the production system, among others [citation needed]

In this context the concept agroecossystems arises. The patenting of seeds (and conflicts in relation to genetic resources), pollution of surface waters with waste fertilizers and pesticides (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides), genetic modification of plants and animals, destruction of habitats (thereby extinction of animal species, plants and microorganisms), have created an ecological movement that preaches the need for alternative production methods (such as organic farming and permaculture).

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